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NEJM: Quadrivalent HPV vaccination can significantly reduce risk of invasive cervical cancer, according to a study of millions of people

  • Categories:Industry Trends
  • Author:Wang Mumu
  • Origin:Biological exploration
  • Time of issue:2020-11-09
  • Views:0

(Summary description)

NEJM: Quadrivalent HPV vaccination can significantly reduce risk of invasive cervical cancer, according to a study of millions of people

(Summary description)

  • Categories:Industry Trends
  • Author:Wang Mumu
  • Origin:Biological exploration
  • Time of issue:2020-11-09
  • Views:0
Information
HPV (Human papilloma Virus) is a class of viruses that cause papillomatous lesions on the skin. More than 100 subtypes have been identified and are classified as low-risk or high-risk depending on the site of infection and symptoms. They commonly cause verruca acuminata and a variety of cancers, including cervical cancer, which is the second most common cancer that causes death in women worldwide.

 
Previous studies have shown that HPV vaccines are effective in preventing the major oncogenic types of HPV infection, namely verruca acuminata and precancerous cervical lesions that can progress to cervical cancer. However, there are no studies yet that have evaluated the effectiveness of the vaccine against invasive cervical cancer, the most serious type of cervical cancer, compounded by a lack of large population-based studies.
 
A recent study published in The New England Journal of Medicine by a team of researchers from Karolinska Institute in Sweden found that quadrivalent HPV vaccination would significantly reduce the risk of invasive cervical cancer in women, and that the benefits were more pronounced when women are vaccinated before age 17.

 

DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1917338

 

By using the Swedish National Population and Health Register, researchers tracked more than 1.67 million women aged between 10 and 30 during 2006-2017, counting their quadrivalent HPV vaccination status, as well as information on covariates such as age, education, residence, household income, parental characteristics, and history of maternal disease. Their diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer was also counted during the follow-up visit period to assess the association between HPV vaccination and the risk of invasive cervical cancer.

 

Characteristics of the study population at baseline

 

Analysis of the statistics revealed that 527,871 women received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine during this study period, and 83.2% of them were vaccinated before the age of 17. It turned out that 19 women who received quadrivalent HPV vaccine and 538 women who did not receive the vaccine were diagnosed with cervical cancer. The study revealed that the cumulative incidence of cervical cancer by age 30 was 94 cases per 100,000 for unvaccinated women and 47 cases per 100,000 for vaccinated women. For women who were vaccinated between 17 and 30, their cumulative incidence rate by age 30 was 54 cases per 100,000. However, for women who were vaccinated before the age of 17, their cumulative incidence by age 28 was only 4 cases per 100,000.

 

Statistics on HPV vaccination and invasive cervical cancer

Cumulative incidence of invasive cervical cancer among different HPV vaccine vaccinations

 

The researchers then used the Poisson regression model to assess and compare the incidence of cervical cancer among vaccinated and unvaccinated women. After adjusting the covariates, they found that HPV vaccination was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of invasive cervical cancer, with reduction by 63% in the overall risk of cervical cancer among women who received the HPV vaccine compared to those without HPV vaccination. The risk of cervical cancer was cut in half among women who received the vaccine between 17 and 30, and was significantly reduced by 88% among women who received the vaccine before 17.

 
Jiayao Lei, the author of the study, said that "In general, our study shows that quadrivalent HPV vaccination significantly reduces the risk of developing cervical cancer, and the benefits are even greater when vaccination takes place before the age of 17. This is the first time we have demonstrated at the population level that HPV vaccination can prevent not only cellular changes that may be precursors to cervical cancer, but also prevent actual invasive cervical cancer."

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